The Computer Age - The Evolution of IBM Computers
"..Late in the 19th century, Herman Hollerith, of Buffalo, New York, began to mull over the problem of speeding up the processing of information. He worked for the U.S. Census Office. It has taken 7 1/2 years to compete the census of 1880. And the 1890 census would take longer; too late to be useful. Then Herman Hollerith came to the rescue. Using punched cards for performing tabulations, he developed his Electric Tabulating System. It cut data processing time for the census by two thirds.
Over the next 50 years this led to the development of numerous other electric tabulating and accounting machines, many of them still in use today. .."